An odd title, I know, but it will make sense. Originally, our light switch plates were brown Bakelite. All but one of them was replaced during the last sixty years —mostly with this ugly large flat type. Some are whiter, but still ugly. They all need to go.
And I get it. But while we only retained one original switch plate, we do have several outlet covers. We decided to only install the Bakelite covers on our restored wood paneling. Gray walls, like this internal siding, get gray outlet covers. These look clean and modern, and are somewhat sympathetic we think to the original design.
Why is Bakelite rigid? And why does it not melt when heated?
We also inherited a couple of ceramic switch plates —the double below, and a matching single. Though not original, they are old. And we kinda like them. These will remain for now, at least on the large white wall in our dining area.
So, to the wood paneled walls. These are in our living room, office and master, and require six outlet covers and just one switch plate, which is lucky.
Having tried to scrape and scrub away paint, with limited success, I was open to anything. I boiled some water, and tentatively dropped one in. I checked it every so often —salad tongs make the perfect tool for this. After about 20 minutes the paint softened enough to make removal easy. I did over-boil one not pictured causing significant fading. These three came out great.
And this was all we needed for the first phase of replacements. The two outlet covers would go on our master bedroom wall. These are for our DIY wall sconces and are very much on display.
We had installed gray plates, but these look way better. They work beautifully against the wood paneling, and contrast nicely with our blue cord. We bought standard brown duplex receptacles, from Home Depot —at first we thought these might be too glossy, but they look just fine. The solo switch plate is for our office.
This is wired to an outlet, designed to control a free-standing lamp. Even better, it looks exactly as intended. We need to strip four more outlet covers for the office and living room, then that will be it for a while. Olivia August 1, at am. Thanks for linking back. Yours must have been painted with some serious paint though, I think I only had to boil mine for a few minutes! You are welcome!Ever wondered why the plastic Bakelite was used to make those bangles and chess pieces?
It is because of the unique properties it possesses. Presented here are the properties and other uses of Bakelite you should know about. Inthe American Chemical Society conferred Bakelite as a National Historical Chemical Landmark, in recognition for being important as the first synthetic plastic that was ever formulated in the world. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. The trademark rights for this plastic are owned by a German company called Bakelite AG, in many countries.
Let us check out the various properties and uses of Bakelite. Layers of paper or glass cloth are impregnated with synthetic resin. The cloth is also made with cellulose paper, synthetic yarn, cotton, glass fabrics, or unwoven fabrics.
Then heat and pressure is applied to it. Because of this, it gets transformed into a thermosetting plastic. A thermosetting plastic is a plastic that liquefies and is malleable when heated.
Then it becomes permanently hard and rigid when cooled. Thus, it can be used to make a variety of items. Leo Baekeland is the chemist who developed it in the yearin New York.
It is a resin a substance belonging to a class of solid or semisolid viscous substances, obtained either as exudations from certain plants or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules.
Manufacturing Bakelite products has a lot of overheads; it is costly and the process is complex. So, substitutes have been found for it. Though the usage of Bakelite has decreased over the years, it still proves to be a useful and important material for various processes and items. Chromium, a transition metal, has found a number of industrial uses due to its toughness and resistance to heat and corrosion. It is widely used for manufacturing stainless steel.
Butyl acetate is a clear-liquid chemical used in various manufacturing industries. Read this ScienceStruck article to know a lot more about its properties and various uses.
It's important to get well-versed with the uses of argon and its properties that make it one of the most useful elements on the planetif we are to understand…. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies.
It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Posted in Uncategorized. Related Posts Properties and Uses of Chromium Chromium, a transition metal, has found a number of industrial uses due to its toughness and resistance to heat and corrosion. Butyl Acetate Properties and Uses Butyl acetate is a clear-liquid chemical used in various manufacturing industries.
Thermoset - the reaction that forms the final plastic takes place when it's initially heated, and once it has cooled the reaction is non-reversable.
It's a bit like an epoxy resin, or concrete even. Once the chemical reaction takes place that causes it to harden, it is in effect a different substance and the reaction that made it solid cannot be reversed. In poly-oxybenzylmethylenglycol-anhydride, the prefix poly means many strands of oxybenzylmethylenglycol are connected by CH2 cross linking groups. The number of cross-links between strands of polymer determines the strength and flexibility of the substance.
A few cross links produces a flexible substance, more cross links causes the polymer to become brittle. Thermoset polymers decompose when heated. With Bakelite, the molecules that make up the compound become cross linked during manufacture and cannot be broken easily Bakelite is a thermoset plastic vs a thermoplastic such as polystyrene or polypropylene. A thermoset plastic is crosslinked at molding temperatures and can not be 'softened' when reheated. Answer Save. Robert J Lv 7. There are two general classes of plastics.
Thermoplastic - melts when heated, sets again when cooled. See the links for info:. Why is Bakelite rigid? And why does it not melt when heated?
The structure of a substance determines the strength and flexibility of the substance. See web site below! See image of bakelite at web site below. All elements have a melting and boiling point.By Barbara O'Brien Right around the turn-of-the-century, the manufacturing of plastics exploded as the demand for the versatile and inexpensive material took off.
One of the earliest and most adaptable forms of plastic is Bakelite, made with components including phenol and formaldehyde. Infiltrating virtually all aspects of our lives for decades, Bakelite manufacturing included jewelry, toys, electrical and insulation products. From floor to ceiling tiles and desirable collectibles, Bakelite permeated households for years.
Antiques enthusiasts clamor to enrich their collections with valuable and popular Bakelite dishes and jewelry. Beautifully designed and handcrafted, these items fetch a reasonable price on the collectors' market.
Beyond the beauty of these useful products, Bakelite products permeate every area of a typical home for decades. As one of the first manufactured and synthetic plastics, Bakelite was highly desirable for its non-conductivity and heat-resistant properties. At the height of manufacturing, Bakelite was lauded for its versatility and as the first artificial plastic. Furthermore, there were different levels and variants of Bakelite that had numerous industrial and commercial applications.
As previously mentioned, Bakelite was used in various industries from automobile and electrical fields. Industrial Bakelite products include radios, electrical and automobile distributor caps and wiring insulation. Later, as the versatility of Bakelite was explored, a variety of products were manufactured. Musical instrument and camera parts, and at one point, Bakelite was considered a replacement for coins by the United States Mint. Through the early s, Bakelite became a highly desirable product.
Houses were decorated with Bakelite: chess pieces, necklaces, bracelets, dishes and kitchen containers. Today, part of the reason why Bakelite items are collectibles, are because of the fine artisanship.
The market value is extremely high, due to the retro feel and limited quantities of certain products. For example, Bakelite jewelry is more rare than, say, dishes or cookware. The dangerous nature of Bakelite is from different sources: manufacturing, collecting and disposing. Since Bakelite is a manufactured, synthetic plastic containing incredible amounts of formaldehyde, asbestos and other extremely toxic polymers, those who produced these desirable products, put themselves at risk.
At the time, safety and health precautions were not mandatory. These hardworking men and women exposed themselves to the toxins, through exposure. Furthermore, though it seems a benign pastime, collecting Bakelite products also do pose a heath threat. If a Bakelite product breaks, the synthetic materials become airborne, and may result in inhalation, ingestion or direct skin contact. Bakelite collectibles are beautiful but deadly. Just like any other plastic-based product, disposing Bakelite is extremely hazardous to the environment.
With older home renovations at its peak, many people are unintentionally exposed to Bakelite from replacing ceiling or floor tiles. Even more, collectors are also susceptible to exposure especially if a dish or a bracelet is broken.
Besides the obvious danger to the environment to improper disposal of these products, there is a considerable and lingering health risk. Not only did these products contain formaldehyde, Bakelite contained asbestos, a known and hazardous toxin. Exposure to Bakelite dust may cause lung infections, mesothelioma and other respiratory complications.
Though medical care for these conditions, including mesothelioma treatmentsare improving through breakthroughs, there is still an on-going risk; not only for those who manufactured those products but also for those who own them.Phenol formaldehyde resins PF or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Used as the basis for BakelitePFs were the first commercial synthetic resins plastics.
They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. They were at one time the primary material used for the production of circuit boards but have been largely replaced with epoxy resins and fiberglass cloth, as with fire-resistant FR-4 circuit board materials.
Toxic Plastics: Bakelite, the Silent Killer
There are two main production methods. One reacts phenol and formaldehyde directly to produce a thermosetting network polymerwhile the other restricts the formaldehyde to produce a prepolymer known as novolac which can be moulded and then cured with the addition of more formaldehyde and heat.
Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid - or base -catalysed. Since formaldehyde exists predominantly in solution as a dynamic equilibrium of methylene glycol oligomersthe concentration of the reactive form of formaldehyde depends on temperature and pH.
Phenol reacts with formaldehyde at the ortho and para sites sites 2, 4 and 6 allowing up to 3 units of formaldehyde to attach to the ring. The initial reaction in all cases involves the formation of a hydroxymethyl phenol:. The hydroxymethyl group is capable of reacting with either another free ortho or para site, or with another hydroxymethyl group. The first reaction gives a methylene bridgeand the second forms an ether bridge:. The diphenol HOC 6 H 4 2 CH 2 sometimes called a "dimer" is called bisphenol Fwhich is an important monomer in the production of epoxy resins.
Bisphenol-F can further link generating tri- and tetra-and higher phenol oligomers. Novolaks or novolacs are phenol-formaldehyde resins with a formaldehyde to phenol molar ratio of less than one.
In place of phenol itself, they are often produced from cresols methylphenols. The polymerization is brought to completion using acid-catalysis such as sulfuric acidoxalic acidhydrochloric acid and rarely, sulfonic acids. The molecular weights are in the low thousands, corresponding to about 10—20 phenol units. Obtained polymer is thermoplastic and require a curing agent or hardener to form a thermoset. Hexamethylenetetramine is a hardener added to crosslink novolac. Novolacs have multiple uses as tire tackifierhigh temperature resin, binder for carbon bonded refractories, carbon brakes, photoresists and as a curing agent for epoxy resins.
Base-catalysed phenol-formaldehyde resins are made with a formaldehyde to phenol ratio of greater than one usually around 1. These resins are called resoles. Phenol, formaldehyde, water and catalyst are mixed in the desired amount, depending on the resin to be formed, and are then heated.
The negative charge is delocalised over the aromatic ringactivating sites 2, 4 and 6, which then react with the formaldehyde.
Garolite Properties and Uses
At this point the resin is a 3-dimensional network, which is typical of polymerised phenolic resins. The high crosslinking gives this type of phenolic resin its hardness, good thermal stability, and chemical imperviousness.
Resoles are referred to as "one step" resins as they cure without a cross linker unlike novolacs, a "two step" resin.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center?
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Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed.Making Bakelite Plastic
Unanswered Questions. Plastics and Polymers. Wiki User Before bakelite could melt it will decompose and if oxygen is present burn. As a thermosetting resin bakelite hasn't a melting point. It doesn't have a melting point as it is a thermosetting plastic, meaning it can be heated but it will not melt, instead the temperature will be raised until it burns.
Hope this help :D. Asked in Temperature, Scientific Method What is the melting point of melting concrete? Asked in Chemical Engineering Melting point of Phenol formaldehyde?
Bakelite: Structure and Uses
Because phenol formaldehyde is a resin it is usually a mixture of chain lengths and cross linking. For this reason, you would not expect it to have a fixed melting point - rather it would usually have either a melting point range or a decomposition temperature depending on the structure. Bakelite - which is one of the many types of phenol formaldehyde resin - is a thermosetting plastic which has no melting point; it has a decomposition point. Again, because it is a mixture of polymer sizes and degree of cross linking, it doesn't have just one fixed temperature; it has a range over which the many different molecules will decompose.
The temperatures under which phenol formaldehyde will melt, soften, or decompose are also affected by the amount of residual monomers still present in the polymer matrix. NaCl has a higher melting point. The melting point of NaCl is oC and the melting point of He is Garolite is a brand name for G10 — FR4 Fiberglass-epoxy laminate material. It is a material that is used in the making of circuit boards. What is a low coefficient of thermal expansion even mean? As you heat a substance up, it will expand and then put it in the freezer and it contracts.
This expansion and contraction is the coefficient of thermal expansion of that particular material. This is a property that is really important when we are looking at circuit boards. As these boards will heat up with use. We cannot have them expanding and contracting a lot or we risk breaking all the tiny connections on the board. Some materials do expand quite a bit when they are exposed to heat. This is the type of material that would not be good for electronic circuit boards.
And, this material has a high coefficient of thermal expansion. Garolite though cannot be injection molded. It must be machined and comes in sheets. These sheets are made of resin as well as fiberglass. However, Garolite can be machined to be insert molded into an object.
It has very high insulating factors, which means that it will insulate the area from electrical current. And, electrical current cannot flow through it.
Since all those tiny components have electricity running through them. Other applications besides Circuit boards are knife handles, insulators, jigs and fixtures, and boating applications.
It is often used in the engine compartment as there we benefit from its electrical insulating properties as well.
But, it can be used to patch a boat as well as other boating components. You may not recognize this material from the boating industry as it is often painted on the top surface to match the boat.
It is used for various covers around the boat as well as engine mounts. Garolite is a very strong material as well and it can hold quite a bit of weight. For that reason, it makes great mounting boards. It offers great fire resistance due to the glass and is resistant to oil and moisture.
Which makes it a perfect match for boat engine rooms. Garolite will breakdown if exposed to UV light. This is a great feature for recycling but makes it impossible to use in some applications. Contact us today for a free consultation on handling your Garolite machining needs. Previous Next. View Larger Image.